- Explanation for step 1
- CAD is caused by the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which reduces blood flow to the heart. Over time, this can lead to angina, heart attack, and heart failure.
- HTN (Hypertension) results from increased pressure in the arterial system, which puts extra strain on the heart and blood vessels. This can further exacerbate the effects of CAD and increase the risk of heart attack and heart failure.
- Heart Failure occurs when the heart muscle becomes weakened and unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can occur as a result of CAD, HTN, or other conditions that affect the heart.
- MI (Myocardial Infarction) is a type of heart attack caused by the sudden loss of blood flow to a part of the heart, usually due to a blocked coronary artery. This can result in permanent damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of heart failure. Comprehensive Understanding of Pathophysiology Essay Discussion Paper
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- BP is determined by several factors including cardiac output (the amount of blood the heart pumps per minute), blood volume, and resistance to blood flow (afterload).
- Explanation for step 3
- Increased BP can increase the workload on the heart, making it pump harder to circulate blood throughout the body.
- This can lead to reduced contractility, which is the heart's ability to contract and pump blood effectively.
- As a result, cardiac output can decrease, which can further exacerbate the effects of heart failure.
- Increased BP also increases afterload, which is the resistance the heart faces as it pumps blood out into the arteries.
- This increased resistance can further reduce cardiac output and lead to heart failure.
- The body has several compensatory mechanisms to reduce BP, including reducing blood volume and increasing urine output to reduce blood volume.
- The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activated in response to decreased blood flow and decreased blood pressure, which results in increased production of the hormone angiotensin II.
- This hormone causes the blood vessels to constrict, which increases blood pressure, and also stimulates the adrenal glands to produce aldosterone, which increases blood volume and pressure.
- The baroreceptor reflex, which senses changes in blood pressure, also triggers the release of other hormones such as nitric oxide and vasopressin, which dilate blood vessels and reduce blood volume, respectively.
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- Explanation for step 8
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